Vloggest Entertainment

Watch all your favorite videostars!
  • Share this video
  • facebook
  • Google+
  • Twitter
  • submit to reddit Reddit
  • Tags
  • Show tags

Why You Can't Build A Clone Army... (Yet)

MinuteEarth Follow
  • Video description
  • 1 year ago
  • 191,167 views
  • 9,601 likes
  • 631 comments
Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/2UGB30qCbvs.

Because of the way genetic reprogramming works, it’s hard to make one clone based on an adult cell, and it’s almost impossible to make a second-generation one.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism.
Clone: An organism produced asexually from one ancestor, to which they are genetically identical.
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main component of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
Embryo: An unborn or unhatched offspring early in the process of development.
Enzyme: A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
Gene: A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring. These are encoded within DNA and help determine traits.
Genetic Reprogramming: This refers to erasing and remodeling epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation during mammalian development.
Zygote: A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes
___________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Cameron Duke (@dukeofcam)
Video Director, Narrator, and Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Chan, M. M., Smith, Z. D., Egli, D., Regev, A., & Meissner, A. (2012). Mouse ooplasm confers context-specific reprogramming capacity. Nature Genetics, 44(9), 978–980. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2382

Dean, W., Santos, F., & Reik, W. (2003). Epigenetic reprogramming in early mammalian development and following somatic nuclear transfer. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 14(1), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1084-9521(02)00141-6

Evans, M. J., Gurer, C., Loike, J. D., Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., & Schon, E. A. (1999). Mitochondrial DNA genotypes in nuclear transfer-derived cloned sheep. Nature Genetics, 23(1), 90–93. https://doi.org/10.1038/12696

Gao, R., Wang, C., Gao, Y., et al. (2018). Inhibition of Aberrant DNA Re-methylation Improves Post-implantation Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos. Cell Stem Cell, 23(3), 426–435.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2018.07.017

Histone Deacetylase - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Www.Sciencedirect.Com. Retrieved March 2, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/histone-deacetylase

Hochedlinger, K., & Plath, K. (2009). Epigenetic reprogramming and induced pluripotency. Development, 136(4), 509–523. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.020867

Hochedlinger, K., Rideout, W. M., Kyba, M., Daley, G. Q., Blelloch, R., & Jaenisch, R. (2004). Nuclear transplantation, embryonic stem cells and the potential for cell therapy. The Hematology Journal, 5, S114–S117. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.thj.6200435

Lister, R., Pelizzola, M., Kida, Y. S., et al. (2011). Hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 471(7336), 68–73. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09798

Morgan, H. D., Santos, F., Green, K., Dean, W., & Reik, W. (2005). Epigenetic reprogramming in mammals. Human Molecular Genetics, 14(suppl_1), R47–R58. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddi114

Reik, W. (2001). Epigenetic Reprogramming in Mammalian Development. Science, 293(5532), 1089–1093. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1063443

Srivastava, D., & DeWitt, N. (2016). In Vivo Cellular Reprogramming: The Next Generation. Cell, 166(6), 1386–1396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.055

Wakayama, S., Kohda, T., Obokata, H., et al. (2013). Successful Serial Recloning in the Mouse over Multiple Generations. Cell Stem Cell, 12(3), 293–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.01.005

Wakayama, T., Shinkai, Y., Tamashiro, K. L. K., et al. (2000). Cloning of mice to six generations. Nature, 407(6802), 318–319. https://doi.org/10.1038/35030301

Yamanaka, S. (2012). Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Past, Present, and Future. Cell Stem Cell, 10(6), 678–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2012.05.005
Vlogger of the day:

Markiplier

“Hello new world, how’s it going? I’m here to wreck everything.” Mark Edward Fischbach (born June 28, 1989), known by his online alias, Markiplier, is an American internet personality, and content...

read more

  • Comments
  • Related videos